After The Fall

Israel's sin of worshipping the golden calf was much like the original sin of Adam and Eve because it destoryed a unique relationship with God.
The original covenant with Israel would have made a whole nation a kingdom of priests.
Because it was obvious that nothing could take Egyptian idolartry out of Israel the Levites became a priestly class.
Without a mediator the Israleites could never safely approach the holiness of God.
Now the Israelites would have to live by the law.
These laws were meant to teach holiness and humiltity.
Every aspect of their lives would be bound by rules.
For example : what they could eat, and how they should wear their beards.
They also had to make regular sacrifices by slaughtering one of the animals they had worshipped as gods in Egypt.
Every day they would have to kill one of their false gods.
They lived apart from other nations so they wouldn't be inflicted with false religions.
These laws might have seemed like a punishment but God was still a loving father.
God did not punish his people for what they had done wrong but instead gave them laws to help rehabilitate them.
Moses then went up to the mountain again and God wrote two new stone tablets to replaced the ones Moses had smashed.
God renewed his covenant with his people which emphasized the prohibitions against worshiping foreign gods.